Origins of Daito-ryu
The history of Daito-ryu prior to the 19th century, as we know it today, is based on the written and oral tradition transmitted from the last two headmasters of the school, Takeda Sokaku and his son and successor Takeda Tokimune. According to this tradition, the name Daito-ryu can be traced back about 900 years, to Shinra Saburo Minamoto no Yoshimitsu (1045-1127), a warrior considered to have been the distant founder of the school. As a child, Minamoto Yoshimitsu lived in a place called Daito in Omi province (modern Shiga prefecture), and therefore was also called Daito Saburo. This is where the name Daito-ryu comes from.
Yoshimitsu studied classical Chinese military strategies like those of Sun Tzu and Wu Tzu, made his name as a military commander who had mastered sumo and aiki, and excelled in both literary and military arts. He also held a supervisory position in the Left Security Department of the Japanese imperial court. The “aiki” mastered by Yoshimitsu had been a secret art transmitted in the Minamoto family, which he continued to perfect and develop.
Aiki is said to have originated in the ancient art of tegoi, which is mentioned in an ancient Japanese myth about two gods, Takemikazuchi no Kami and Takeminakata no Kami. Recorded in Japan’s oldest written document, the Kojiki, (Records of Ancient Matters, compiled around 712 AD), this story recounts how Takemikazuchi no Kami took the hands of Takeminakata no Kami and “as if he had taken hold of a reed, squeezed his hands and threw him.”
Tegoi is also said to be the origin of sumo (now Japan’s national sport), recounted in the legend of Nomi no Sukune and Taima no Kehaya in Nihon Shoki (Chronicles of Japan, 720 AD). During the Heian era (c. 792-1192) tegoi was transformed into a court entertainment known as sumai no sechie, which in turn subsequently evolved into sumo, practiced by warriors of the Kamakura era (1192-1333). Sumai no sechie was a sumo competition during which wrestlers from all over Japan competed before the Japanese emperor. Unlike modern sumo, however, there was no wrestling ring, and the techniques used were more combative than those used in sumo today. The combative character of the art at that point of time is clearly seen even from an imperial edict issued by emperor Nimmyo (810-850), saying that “sumai no sechie is not just an entertainment; it is an ideal means for cultivating real martial skills.”
In 868, during the rule of Emperor Seiwa (850-880), administrative jurisdiction over sumai no sechie was transferred from the Ministry of Ceremonies to the Ministry of Military Affairs, officially marking sumo’s transition to becoming a true martial art. Tegoi training forms developed for protecting the emperor were inherited by the Minamoto family, which descended from Prince Tsunemoto, a grandson of Emperor Seiwa. The art was transmitted from Prince Tsunemoto to Minamoto Mitsunaka, Minamoto Yoriyoshi and finally to Minamoto Yoshimitsu.
Minamoto Yoshimitsu was awarded the rank of Kai no Kami (Lord of Kai province) for meritorious service during the Later Three-Year War (1083-1087). Late in his life he took the Buddhist name Gyobu Nyudo, and engaged in tempering his body and spirit through esoteric practices at Onjo Temple. He is said to have acquired unparalleled magical powers and divine presence. It was at this point that Daito-ryu shook off its origins in tegoi and came into its own as a distinct art.
From the Takeda family of Kai province to the Takeda family of the Aizu domain
Minamoto Yoshimitsu transmitted his art to his second son Yoshikiyo, along with the banner and armor traditionally passed down through the generations within the Minamoto family. Yoshikiyo’s grandson, Nobuyoshi, is said to have lived in the village of Takeda in Kitakoma county in Kai province, and thus adopted the family name of Takeda. This marked the beginning of the Takeda family of Kai province, a lineage that would last until Takeda Shingen (1521-1573), considered one of the greatest military generals of the Japanese medieval period. The art of Daito-ryu continued to be transmitted within the Takeda family together with the time-honored family banner and armor.
In February of 1574, almost a year after the death of Takeda Shingen, his relative Takeda Kunitsugu arrived in the Aizu domain of Mutsu province (part of modern Fukushima prefecture) bearing Shingen’s last will and testament. Here he entered the service of Ashina Moriuji, lord of the Aizu domain who had been one of Shingen’s allies. As an estate steward, Kunitsugu was granted 10,000 square meters of land in Nishi Aozu Muratakata. Here he lived in a place called Oike, maintaining a small force of fifteen cavalry men and ten infantry men. He also rebuilt the old and rotting Seinei Temple, which he reestablished as a branch of Aizu Tennei Temple and renamed Saiko Temple. From that time the Takeda family descendents of Kunitsugu settled in the Aizu domain. The Takeda family maintained the responsibilities as the chief priests of Aizu Ise Shrine (considered the protective Shinto shrine for Seinei Temple) and transmitted the secrets of Daito-ryu (also referred to as kogusoku).
During the Edo period (1603-1867), the first Tokugawa shogun, Ieyasu (1542-1616), officially recognized the Takeda-ryu (Koshu-ryu) military strategy of Takeda Shingen’s retainer Obata Kagenori (1572-1663). Since that time, the achievements of the Takeda family in politics, military affairs, economics, and other fields were incorporated into policies of the Tokugawa government with successful results.
Tokugawa Ieyasu’s grandson, Komatsumaru, became an adopted child of Takeda Shingen’s fourth daughter Takeda Kenshoin, and devoted himself to the practice of the Takeda martial arts. Later he became an adopted child of Hoshina Masamitsu and took the name of Hoshina Masayuki. In 1644 Hoshina Masayuki (1611-1672) was appointed to be the lord of the Aizu domain. He was famed as a wise ruler who governed successfully with great care and skill.
According to the will of the third Tokugawa shogun Iemitsu, in 1651 Hoshina Masayuki became the guardian and adjunct of the eleven-year-old shogun Ietsuna, assuming the title of Great Councilor, the highest post in the Tokugawa government. From that time and for the next twenty years he supervised political affairs in Edo Castle. During this time he reformed the Daito-ryu transmitted to the Aizu domain by Takeda Kunitsugu to accommodate peacekeeping needs within the castle precincts. Namely, he initiated a system referred to as oshikiuchi, a self-defense system to be taught to senior councilors, shogunal retainers, and certain castle workers.
Furthermore, Hoshina Masayuki also mastered the Ono-ha Itto-ryu school of swordsmanship, studying under Ono Tadatsune, the instructor to the shogunal family. Both of these arts, Ono-ha Itto-ryu and oshikiuchi, he transmitted to the succeeding lords of the Aizu domain. In particular, he entrusted the teachings of oshikiuchi to those Aizu domain senior councilors bearing the surname of Saigo, a family that originated with the Saigo family of Mikawa Province (modern Aichi prefecture).
The Takeda family bloodline continued from Takeda Kunitsugu to Takeda Chikara, Takeda Nobutsugu, and after another four generations was inherited by Takeda Soemon (? – 1853). Soemon studied the arts of yin-yang divination (ommyodo) in Kyoto under the Tsuchimikado family, who were descendants of renowned diviner Abe no Seimei (921-1005), eventually receiving a menkyo (license of mastery) certificate and obtaining the title of Takumi no Kami. After returning to Oike in the Aizu domain he served as the chief priest of Aizu Ise Shrine and was known both as an expert in the Shinto religion and yin-yang divination and a master of Daito-ryu. He taught these arts in different places, and also transmitted secret teachings to the Aizu domain councilor Saigo Tanomo.
Soemon’s firstborn son, Sokichi (1819-1906), inherited a piece of cultivated land that had been passed down through his family. He practiced sumo, kenjutsu (sword), bojutsu (long staff) and Daito-ryu. Having obtained a special domainal permission, Sokichi embarked with two other young men on a self-training journey around Japan, earning for himself a reputation as a man of valor. After his return, he obtained the title of ozeki, the second-highest rank in the sumo circles of the Aizu domain, and was granted the sumo name Shiraitozeki by the lord of Aizu. Sokichi was also an educated man who ran a local elementary temple school (terakoya) and taught martial arts in a dojo on his property. He was known for his courageous participation in the Battle of Hamagurimon (Kimmon) in Kyoto in July of 1864, and also in two punitive military expeditions made by the Tokugawa bakufu against the rebellious Choshu domain in 1864 and 1866. Sokichi also participated in the Battle of Toba-Fushimi in January of 1868 and in the Shirakawa battles in April-July of 1868. During the latter he led a Sumo Wrestlers Corps that had been incorporated as part of the artillery force.
Takeda Sokaku was born the second son of Takeda Sokichi on 10 October 1859 in the Takeda mansion within the precincts of Aizu Ise Shrine in Oike. As a child, Sokaku witnessed first-hand the battles of the Aizu War, many of which took place within walking distance from his home. He learned kenjutsu, bojutsu, sumo, and Daito-ryu from his father. He also learned Ono-ha Itto-ryu from Shibuya Toma at the Yokikan dojo, which was located in the Bangemachi district of the Aizu domain. In 1873, together with his father Sokichi, he visited the Jikishinkage-ryu dojo of Sakakibara Kenkichi with whom Sokichi had good relationship. Sokaku became a live-in student at the Sakakibara dojo, studying the depths of Jikishinkage-ryu.
Sokaku’s stay in Tokyo was cut short by the sudden death of his older brother Sokatsu in 1876. Sokatsu had entered the priesthood and, with his unexpected passing, Sokichi determined that his second son, Sokaku, would succeed him, an arrangement that he felt would give Sokaku a more respectable vocation. Consequently, the seventeen-year-old Sokaku was sent to Tsutsukowake Shrine in Fukushima prefecture (the Aizu domain had ceased to exist by that time). The chief priest there was Hoshina Chikanori (1830-1903), formerly known as Saigo Tanomo and a one-time Aizu domain councilor. Hoshina was sympathetic to the cause of Saigo Takamori (1828-1877), a key figure in the Meiji Restoration, who now found himself at odds with the Imperial government he had helped to create. It would appear that Hoshina briefed Sokaku on the political and military situation in the country and, in particular, on Takamori’s activities in Kagoshima. At that time, rumors of Takamori’s rebellion buzzed in Sokaku’s ear and after a short stay of only a few weeks at the shrine as an apprentice priest, he abandoned his duties and set out for Kyushu with the intention of joining Takamori’s army.
Sokaku made his way towards Kyushu via Tokyo and then Osaka where he spent a period of time training at the Kyoshin Meichi-ryu kenjutsu dojo of noted swordsman Momonoi Shunzo (1826-1886). Objections from those around him and other events eventually conspired to prevent Sokaku from joining Takamori’s army, and he finally abandoned his plan. Nonetheless, he did not return home but instead spent the next ten or so years traveling around the southern part of Japan engaged in self-training. There are no known documents from this period of Sokaku’s life, but various accounts of his training and adventures were left by his son Tokimune.
Likewise, few details are available on Sokaku’s activities following his period of wandering in southern Japan. It is known that he spent some time in his native Fukushima prefecture, during which time he married and fathered two children. He also accompanied Saigo Tsugumichi (1843-1902), a younger brother of Saigo Takamori, to Hokkaido about 1887, when Tsugumichi became the head of the Hokkaido Development Project. It seems likely that Sokaku continued his training in the martial arts during this period extending into the 1890s and may have begun his teaching activities as well.
Sokaku trained in Daito-ryu under his father Sokichi. As for oshikiuchi he learned it for the first time from Hoshina Chikanori while studying under his mentorship at Tsutsukowake Shrine as an apprentice priest in 1876. In later years Sokaku would visit Hoshina often, including in 1898 when he spent some time at Ryozen Shrine in Fukushima prefecture, used as a dojo for esoteric practices by the Tendai Buddhist sect. There, under the supervision of Hoshina, Sokaku is said to have mastered the arts of divining time and space, the Mind’s Eye and other magical powers, as well as the deepest secrets of oshikiuchi. On 12 May of the same year Sokaku received a poem from Hoshina:
People, do they know?
Though you may strike the flow of a river
no mark is left on the water
This is thought to have signified the formal transmission of Daito-ryu to Sokaku. Since that time Sokaku referred to himself as a practitioner of Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu and Ono-ha Itto-ryu swordsmanship. He began traveling around Japan teaching these martial arts and is revered as the “interim reviver” of Daito-ryu.
It is possible to trace Sokaku’s whereabouts over a span of approximately fifty years with pinpoint accuracy beginning from 1892. This is due to the fact that of most of his personal enrollment books (Eimeiroku) and payment ledgers (Shareiroku), in which he had recorded detailed information on his teaching activities, have been preserved. These books contain the names and addresses of students, techniques taught, amounts paid, and other relevant information.
In 1910, Sokaku accompanied Akita prefectural police chief Takarabe Sanehide to Hokkaido upon the latter’s transfer to Japan’s underdeveloped northernmost island. Sokaku decided to settle in Hokkaido and there he remarried. Hokkaido would remain the site of his official residence for the rest of his life. After finishing his assignment with Takarabe, Sokaku began traveling around Hokkaido teaching Daito-ryu in various locations. Later, on the invitation of his student Ueshiba Morihei, Sokaku moved to a new dwelling in the Hokkaido town of Shirataki, where he lived with his wife Sue. This union produced seven children including Sokaku’s successor Tokimune.
With the exception of the years of 1921 and 1922, Sokaku seldom ventured outside Hokkaido until the mid-1930s. Starting in 1934 he shifted his activities to the Tohoku, Kanto, and Kansai areas. While in Kanto he was often assisted during his instructional tours by Sagawa Yukiyoshi (1902-1998). Then in 1936, Sokaku appeared at the office of the Osaka Asahi News, announcing himself as “the martial arts teacher of Ueshiba Morihei.” The specifics of this episode are surrounded in controversy, and it is unclear why Sokaku showed up so unexpectedly and took over instruction at the dojo where Morihei had been teaching since about 1933. In any event, during the following two years and eight months Sokaku often visited Osaka and taught Daito-ryu, eventually awarding menkyo kaiden (license of full transmission) certificates to both Hisa Takuma (1895-1980) and Tonedate Masao in 1939.
Sokaku spent most of the last years of his life in Hokkaido. Despite his advanced age he continued teaching until finally passing away at age eighty-four, on 25 April 1943 in Aomori prefecture during one of his usual instruction tours.
Takeda Sokaku mastered many different martial arts during his life, including sword, Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu, spear, staff, stick, shuriken, and others. He held the highest certificate (inka) awarded in Takada-ha Hozoin-ryu spear and menkyo kaiden in Ono-ha Itto-ryu swordsmanship. In his youth, he visited numerous dojo throughout Japan polishing his skills. He also engaged in personal training austerities, secluding himself in Udo Myojin Shrine in Kyushu, Futarasan Shrine in Nikko, Hagurosan Shrine in Yamagata prefecture and other places, always striving to temper his body and spirit. Sokaku’s sword skills were extraordinary and fearsome to the degree that he was called “the little demon of Aizu.” He was less than 150 centimeters tall, but is said to have had piercing eyes, skills that reached a level that seemed almost divine, and an ability to know a person’s past, present and future even before meeting him. During his lifetime he taught about 30,000 students, including many famous martial artists (among them the swordsman Shimoe Hidetaro, aikido founder Ueshiba Morihei), as well as a wide array of politicians, military officers, judges, policemen, and other persons of high social standing from all over Japan.